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Histoire romain, par Paul Guiraud, Because of competition with the crops, they are no longer being planted, but their age is easy to assess. The oldest ones that were still standing in and were part of the hedgescape, were between 70 and years old in in other words, they predated the time the Europeans settled the Bamiléké plateau.

These trees are located on the borders of the Raffia palm groves and are planted upslope to delineate the concession. This description is also found in ethnographic studies. Since he was mainly interested in the mountain forests of Mount Bamboutos, the information he provided on the hedges in very incomplete, but nevertheless precious: Around Dschang and Djutitsa, he saw an enclosure system based on Ficus spp.

The presence of some isolated trees that represented power, like Ceiba pentendra, or land ownership like Ficus spp. Bamiléké landscape at the beginning of the 20th century 28By crossing fragmentary and sometimes anecdotal information, we built the following hypothesis on the organisation of the Bamiléké landscape at the beginning of the 20th century when the Europeans arrived: Hedgescapes bocage existed before the arrival of the Europeans.


Planting hedges was not imposed or even encouraged by the colonial rulers or the missionaries. They already existed. In , Ledermann found species that were basic to the construction of hedges. However, the type of bocage differed from what it is today and was not found everywhere, which thus challenges a generally accepted hypothesis Barbier, ; Ghomsi, These groups of houses were separated by vast stretches of savanna over which rival chiefdoms fought.


There was no dominant landscape element in the Bamiléké area at the time, just patches in a savanna system interspersed with gallery forests.

This analysis would explain the relative ease of German penetration despite the fact that population density was already rather high. The region looked like a savanna landscape because the enclosed lands and houses were at the bottom of the valleys and could not be seen from the hillcrest roads along which the first Europeans travelled.

There was still room available for expansion: between the quarters and between the chiefdoms, there were vast stretches of land waiting to be cultivated, interspersed with long-term fallows Mann, Some of the quarters, such as Djutitsa in Bafou, had been colonised.

On the other hand, most of the uninhabited lands had already been distributed and the best lands had been taken over even before they were cultivated.


This land appropriation is signalled by symbolic trees Ledermann, or by stones that may have temporarily played the notification role Buell, ; Hassert, The hedgerow system quickly spread and dominated the landscape. Actions of the French administration and repercussions for the landscapes 33The introduction of the mandate system between the end of the World War I and led the colonial administration to break up the main chiefdoms created through tribal wars and the regroupings carried out by the German administration Ghomsi, They decided to give the same administrative authority to all the chiefdoms and govern through the chiefs who thus became agents of the French government The French had little direct influence over the changes to the landscape until the liberalisation of the coffee sector in Before their arrival, the conquest of new lands by occupying the plateau or through tribal wars was a way to solve land tenure issues caused by the increase in population.


Settling groups of people within fixed borders created uneasiness about land use that grew worse with the selective introduction of coffee in The pacification process had repercussions on the landscape. People gradually moved their houses up the hill, which gave the impression of nearly continuous housing along the roads The cultivated lands, the hedges and the fences followed the pattern of displacement of the houses and became a key element in the landscape.

In , Nearly all the chiefdom lands were inhabited. This led to spectacular fragmentation of the concessions as of see the detailed analysis in den Ouden Since the population surplus could not be absorbed, the Bamiléké started emigrating to the Moungo region and to the cities.

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The action of the churches 39French missionaries took over from the German and Swiss missionaries in With the help of the French administration, the Catholic mission sped ahead. The Catholic influence was particularly strng since the position of the Protestants in the Bamiléké region had always been weak. It was a fitting turn of history that the Church, in response to the clashes that broke out at independence time, suggested a new regrouping system to the government authorities; the reticence of the Bamiléké who continued being pagans, attached to polygamy, which the church condemned Albert, , and had their own strong social organisation.

He appeared to feel that it was a secondary formation caused by land clearing and bushfires by people living in a relatively densely populated area on the high plateau. The mention of these trees, which were still abundant in the agricultural system in , was important for the evolution of the treescape. Some of them grow to m in height.


Ledermann , the Ficus and the Dracaena are part of the genus most commonly used in the hedges on the Bamiléké plateau. Surprisingly, Markhamia, which Hedin identified, was not mentioned in the Dschang region, although in , it was still one of the main species used in the hedges. Soyez bénis aux Noms de nos ancestres. Jc keubowo vanité vanité bansoa. Baleng folklore mix Baleng folklore mix.

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